ATMOSPHERE | definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary

 

atmosphere in literature definition

An atmosphere (from Ancient Greek ἀτμός (atmos), meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα (sphaira), meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. Definition, Usage and a list of Atmosphere Examples in literature. Atmosphere is a type of feelings that readers get from a narrative based on details such as settings, . Jan 09,  · Atmosphere definition, the gaseous envelope surrounding the earth; the air. See more.


Atmosphere - definition of atmosphere by The Free Dictionary


An atmosphere is more atmosphere in literature definition to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. Oxygen is used by most organisms for respiration ; nitrogen is fixed by bacteria and lightning to produce ammonia used in the construction of nucleotides and amino acids ; and carbon dioxide is used by plantsalgae and cyanobacteria for photosynthesis. The atmosphere helps to protect living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiationsolar wind and cosmic rays.

The current composition of the Earth's atmosphere is the product of billions of years of biochemical modification of the paleoatmosphere by living organisms. The term stellar atmosphere describes the outer region of a star and typically includes the portion above the opaque photosphere.

Stars with sufficiently low temperatures may have outer atmospheres with compound molecules. Atmospheric pressure at a particular location is the force per unit area perpendicular to a surface determined by the weight of the vertical column of atmosphere above that location.

On Earth, units of air pressure are based on the internationally recognized standard atmosphere atmwhich is defined as It is atmosphere in literature definition with a barometer.

Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude due to the diminishing mass of gas above. The height at which the pressure from an atmosphere declines by a factor of e an irrational number with a value of 2. For an atmosphere with a uniform temperature, the scale height is proportional to the temperature and inversely proportional to the product of the mean molecular mass of dry air and the local acceleration of gravity at that location.

For such a model atmosphere, the pressure declines exponentially with increasing altitude. However, atmospheres are not uniform in temperature, so estimation of the atmospheric pressure at any particular altitude is atmosphere in literature definition complex. Surface gravity differs significantly among the planets. For example, the large gravitational force of the giant planet Jupiter retains light gases such as hydrogen and helium that escape from objects with lower gravity.

Secondly, the distance from the Sun determines the energy available to heat atmospheric gas to the point where atmosphere in literature definition fraction of its molecules' thermal motion exceed the planet's escape velocityallowing those to escape a planet's gravitational grasp. Thus, distant and cold TitanTritonand Pluto are able to retain their atmospheres despite their relatively low gravities.

Since a collection of gas molecules may be moving at a wide range of velocities, there will always be some fast enough to produce a slow leakage of gas into space. Lighter atmosphere in literature definition move faster than heavier ones with the same thermal kinetic energyand so gases of low molecular weight are lost more rapidly than those of high molecular weight.

It is thought that Venus and Mars may have lost much of their water when, after being photo dissociated into hydrogen and oxygen by solar ultravioletatmosphere in literature definition hydrogen escaped. Earth 's magnetic field helps to prevent this, as, normally, the solar wind would greatly enhance the escape of hydrogen.

Other mechanisms that can cause atmosphere depletion are solar wind -induced sputtering, impact erosion, weatheringand sequestration—sometimes referred to as "freezing out"—into the regolith and polar caps. Atmospheres have dramatic effects on the surfaces of rocky bodies.

Objects that have no atmosphere, or that have only an exosphere, have terrain that is covered in craters, atmosphere in literature definition. Without an atmosphere, the planet has no protection from meteoroidsand all of them collide with the surface as meteorites and create craters. Most meteoroids burn up as meteors before hitting a planet's surface. When meteoroids do impact, the effects are often erased by the action of wind. Wind erosion is a significant factor in shaping the terrain of rocky planets with atmospheres, and over time atmosphere in literature definition erase the effects of both craters and volcanoes, atmosphere in literature definition.

In addition, since liquid s can not exist without pressure, atmosphere in literature definition, an atmosphere allows liquid to be present at the surface, resulting in lakesrivers and oceans. Earth and Titan are known to have liquids at their surface and terrain on the planet suggests that Mars had liquid on its surface in the past.

A planet's initial atmospheric composition is related to the chemistry and temperature of the local solar nebula during planetary formation and the subsequent escape of interior gases. The original atmospheres started with a rotating disc of gases that collapsed to form a series of spaced rings that condensed to form the planets.

The planet's atmospheres were then modified over time by various complex factors, resulting in quite different outcomes. The atmospheres of the planets Venus and Mars are primarily composed of carbon dioxidewith small quantities of nitrogenatmosphere in literature definition, argonoxygen and traces of other gases. The composition of Earth's atmosphere is largely governed by the by-products of the life that it sustains.

Dry air from Earth's atmosphere contains The low temperatures and higher gravity of the Solar System's giant planets — JupiterSaturnUranus and Neptune —allow them more readily atmosphere in literature definition retain gases with low molecular masses.

These planets have hydrogen—helium atmospheres, with trace amounts of more complex compounds. Two satellites of the outer planets possess significant atmospheres. Titana moon of Saturn, and Tritona moon of Neptune, have atmospheres mainly of nitrogen.

When in the part of its orbit closest to the Sun, Pluto has an atmosphere of nitrogen and methane similar to Triton's, but these gases are frozen when it is farther from the Sun. Other bodies within the Solar System have extremely thin atmospheres not in equilibrium. These include the Moon sodium gasMercury sodium gasEuropa oxygenIo sulfurand Enceladus water vapor.

The first exoplanet whose atmospheric composition was determined is HD ba gas giant with a close orbit around a star in the constellation Pegasus, atmosphere in literature definition. Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and sulfur have been detected in the planet's inflated atmosphere. Earth's atmosphere consists of a number of layers that differ in properties such as composition, temperature and pressure. The lowest layer is the tropospherewhich extends from the surface to the bottom of the stratosphere.

Three quarters of the atmosphere's mass resides within the troposphere, and is the layer within which the Earth's terrestrial weather develops. The stratosphere, extending from the top of the troposphere to the bottom of the mesospherecontains the ozone layer, atmosphere in literature definition. The ionosphere increases in thickness and moves closer to the Earth during daylight and rises at night allowing certain frequencies of radio communication a greater range.

Each of the layers has a different lapse ratedefining the rate of change in temperature with height. The circulation of the atmosphere occurs due to thermal differences when convection becomes a more efficient atmosphere in literature definition of heat than thermal radiation. On planets where the primary heat source is solar radiation, excess heat in the tropics is transported to higher latitudes. When a planet generates a significant amount of heat internally, such as is the case for Jupiterconvection in the atmosphere can transport thermal energy from the higher temperature interior up to the surface.

From the perspective of a planetary geologistthe atmosphere acts to shape a planetary surface. Wind picks up dust and other particles which, when they collide with the terrain, erode the relief and leave deposits eolian processes.

Frost and precipitationswhich depend on the atmospheric composition, also influence the relief. Climate changes can atmosphere in literature definition a planet's geological history, atmosphere in literature definition.

Conversely, studying the surface of the Earth leads to an understanding of the atmosphere and climate of other planets. For a meteorologistthe composition of the Earth's atmosphere is a factor affecting the climate and its variations.

For a biologist or paleontologistthe Earth's atmospheric atmosphere in literature definition is closely dependent on the appearance of the life and its evolution. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, atmosphere in literature definition.

This article is about an atmosphere of a celestial body. For Earth's atmosphere, see Atmosphere of Earth. For other uses, see Atmosphere disambiguation. For the scientific journal, see Atmospheric Environment. The layer of gases surrounding an astronomical body held by gravity. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Atmospheric pressure. Main article: Atmospheric escape. Main article: Atmosphere of Earth, atmosphere in literature definition. Main article: Extrasolar atmosphere. Main article: Atmospheric circulation, atmosphere in literature definition.

Weather portal. Bibcode : Sci Archived from the original on Retrieved Astronomy and Astrophysics. Hubble News Center. HD b Kepler-7b. Ceres Pluto Makemake. Coma cometary Extraterrestrial atmosphere Stellar atmosphere.

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What Is Atmosphere in Literature? | arabno.gq

 

atmosphere in literature definition

 

An atmosphere (from Ancient Greek ἀτμός (atmos), meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα (sphaira), meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. Atmosphere in literature is created by how an author uses literary tools to convey tone. This quiz/worksheet combo will help you test your understanding of how literary atmosphere is created and. Atmosphere definition is - the gaseous envelope of a celestial body (such as a planet). How to use atmosphere in a sentence.